Best Practices – Utility Cuts in Concrete Pavement

Concrete pavements have long been recognized as clean, smooth riding, strong, and durable, and properly designed and constructed concrete pavements should provide several decades of zero- to low-maintenance service. At times, it is necessary to cut trenches in some concrete pavements, particularly in urban areas, in order to repair or install utilities such as sewers, drainage structures, water mains, gas mains and service
lines, telecommunication lines, and power conduits. Unless the cost of trenchless methods that do not disturb the pavement is justified, the pavement must be opened up, the utility installed or repaired, and the pavement restored using a utility cut restoration. If these operations are carried out properly (see Appendix 1 for the step-by-step process of making a utility cut in a concrete pavement), there will be minimal impact on the pavement’s functional serviceability, ride quality, and lifespan.

The Remarkable Story of 10 Historic Concrete Pavements in California

Many concrete pavements constructed in the 1920s and 1930s in California are still in use today, serving communities for 70 to 90 years with little to no maintenance. Concrete pavements were first constructed in the United States at the end of the 19th century. Several of these concrete streets are just now coming up for rehabilitation or reconstruction, making it a perfect time to tell their story.

Study of Historical Concrete Pavements in California – April 2017

Concrete pavements have long been recognized for their longevity and low life cycle costs. A large number of  concrete pavements constructed in the 1920s and 1930s in California are still in use today, serving communities for 70 to 80 years with little maintenance cost. The history of these pavements, including their exceptional longterm performance, has not been told and the story that they tell is being lost as many of these 80 to 90 year old historic concrete pavements are being rehabilitated with asphalt overlays or reconstructed.

Guide for Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements – NCPTC

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete—well-graded aggregates, cementitious materials, and water—but has different mixture proportions. The largest difference between RCC mixtures and conventional concrete mixtures is that RCC has a higher percentage of fine aggregates, which allows for tight packing and consolidation.

 

Roller-Compacted Concrete Density: Principles and Practices – PCA

A key to design and construction using RCC is the application of testing procedures for both laboratory and field density that is representative of in-place conditions. Several test methods developed over the last 20 years are described in this publication. Also included is information on soil mechanics and concrete methodology aspects of RCC as well as a discussion on various standard compaction methods.

 

Utility Cuts in Concrete Pavements – ACPA

Concrete pavements have long been recognized as clean, smooth riding, strong, and durable, and properly designed and constructed concrete pavements should provide several decades of zero- to low-maintenance service. At times, it is necessary to cut trenches in some concrete pavements, particularly in urban areas, in order to repair or install utilities such as sewers, drainage structures, water mains, gas mains and service lines, telecommunication lines, and power conduits.

Guidelines for the Stabilization of Subgrade Soils In California

California is geologically active and a wide variety of soil types occur across the state. A thorough understanding of these subgrade soils in any pavement project area is essential to appropriately engineer the construction, rehabilitation, or widening of a highway facility. Subgrade is defined in the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Standard Specifications as “Roadbed portion on which pavement, surfacing, base, subbase, or a layer of any other material is placed.” It is the soil or rock material underlying the pavement structure, and unlike base and wearing course (surfacing) materials whose characteristics are relatively uniform, there is often substantial variability of engineering properties of subgrade soils over the length of a project.

Caltrans Design Guide – Full Depth Reclamation Using Cement

FDR-C uses less cement and water than conventional concrete and concrete base. The FDR-C unconfined compressive strengths are correspondingly less than these materials.

The FDR-C pavement rehabilitation process pulverizes and shapes the existing AC pavement and a portion of the underlying materials, and mixes the pulverized materials with cement and water, usually in a separate operation. The processed mixture is then graded, compacted, and surfaced.

Full-Depth Reclamation using Portland Cement: A Study of Long-Term Performance

Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) with cement is a procedure where failed asphalt pavements are pulverized and reclaimed, using cement to stabilize the recycled materials and create a new pavement base. This cementstabilized base is then surfaced to provide an new, long-lasting pavement structure.

This report summarizes the long-term performance of pavement construction projects where the FDR with cement process has been used. The actual field performance of more than 75 projects in eight states were evaluated. The average project age was 9 years, and the oldest was 26 years.