Best Practices – Utility Cuts in Concrete Pavement

Concrete pavements have long been recognized as clean, smooth riding, strong, and durable, and properly designed and constructed concrete pavements should provide several decades of zero- to low-maintenance service. At times, it is necessary to cut trenches in some concrete pavements, particularly in urban areas, in order to repair or install utilities such as sewers, drainage structures, water mains, gas mains and service
lines, telecommunication lines, and power conduits. Unless the cost of trenchless methods that do not disturb the pavement is justified, the pavement must be opened up, the utility installed or repaired, and the pavement restored using a utility cut restoration. If these operations are carried out properly (see Appendix 1 for the step-by-step process of making a utility cut in a concrete pavement), there will be minimal impact on the pavement’s functional serviceability, ride quality, and lifespan.

Guide to Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)

About This Guide

This Guide to Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) with Cement is a product of the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center (CP Tech Center) at Iowa State University’s Institute for Transportation, with funding from the Portland Cement Association. Th e guide provides a concise discussion of all aspects of selecting, designing, and constructing a reclaimed, cement stabilized asphalt base in preparation for a new pavement surface layer.

Guide for Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements – NCPTC

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete—well-graded aggregates, cementitious materials, and water—but has different mixture proportions. The largest difference between RCC mixtures and conventional concrete mixtures is that RCC has a higher percentage of fine aggregates, which allows for tight packing and consolidation.


Roller-Compacted Concrete Density: Principles and Practices – PCA

A key to design and construction using RCC is the application of testing procedures for both laboratory and field density that is representative of in-place conditions. Several test methods developed over the last 20 years are described in this publication. Also included is information on soil mechanics and concrete methodology aspects of RCC as well as a discussion on various standard compaction methods.


Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement – Caltrans

Section 40-9 includes specifications for furnishing and installing concrete pavers for permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP).

40-9.01B Definitions

Bundle: Several paver layers packaged together.

Paver layer: Concrete pavers manufactured into patterned layers and ready for mechanical installation.

Mechanical installation: Using a machine to lift and install paving layers.

Laying face: Exposed, vertical face of a row of concrete pavers complete in place.


SR298 Guide to RCC Pavements – NCPTC

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is an economical, fast-construction candidate for many pavement applications. It has traditionally been used for pavements carrying heavy loads in low-speed areas because of its relatively coarse surface. However, in recent years its use in commercial areas and for local streets and highways has been increasing. This guide provides owner-agencies, contractors, materials suppliers, and others with a thorough introduction to and updated review of RCC and its many paving applications.

SF Permeable Paving Stone Systems

Permeable pavements provide a different approach. Rather than channelizing precipitation along the surface of the pavement, the water is allowed to infiltrate and flow through the pavement surface where it can be stored and slowly allowed to return into the local groundwater system. The benefits of this approach are well documented [1] and their use by designers is encouraged through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System™. In addition, the use of permeable pavements can be cost‐effective as the use of these pavement systems can reduce or even eliminate costly storm sewer systems, reduce the size of storm water detention ponds and provide additional land area for potential development or parkland.

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement – ICPI

Porous asphalt and pervious concrete are supplied in a ‘plastic’ state and formed on the job site. This makes them subject to weather. PICP can be installed in freezing weather, however, porous asphalt and pervious concrete cannot. In above-freezing temperatures, plastic asphalt and concrete mixes must be regularly checked by the contractor for consistency and conformance to specifications. These materials impose time limits within which the contractor must work before asphalt cools and concrete cures and stiffens. These time and temperature constrained materials rely on a high degree of site control in order to achieve a successful installation.

PICP units are manufactured in a factory and delivered to the site. They are not subject to time and temperature limitations in installation. PICP paving units should comply with national product standards (ASTM C 936 or CSA A231.2). These product standards require manufacture of high compressive strength concrete averaging 8,000 psi (55 MPa). Pervious concrete has a typical compressive strength of about 2,500 to 4,000 psi (17 to 28 MPa). Unlike pervious concrete and porous asphalt, concrete pavers have freeze-thaw durability test methods and requirements within their product standards to help assure adequate field performance in winter conditions. Freeze-thaw durability and higher strength PICP offers a more durable surface under wheel loads, snow plow abrasion and deicing materials.

Pavements Built for the Future – ICPI

Segmental paving dates back to the Roman Empire. Today’s version is made of precast, high-strength concrete paving units. This brochure provides examples among hundreds of municipalities who have used millions of square feet (m2) of segmental concrete pavers as interlocking concrete pavement (ICP) or permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP). Unlike monolithic pavements, concrete pavers are manufactured with specialized equipment in factories that make paving units with close tolerances meeting national specifications. A controlled production environment results in consistent quality and high durability products delivered to the job site. A high level of quality control enables concrete pavers to meet engineering requirements while enhancing the appearance of public and private projects. Like monolithic pavements, design of ICP and PICP considers the subgrade soils, environment, anticipated traffic and paving materials. Rectangular or dentated shapes are placed in interlocking patterns that provide additional strength and stability under vehicular traffic.

Guidelines – Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) – ACPA

Concrete pavement restoration, or CPR, is a series of engineered techniques developed over the past thirty years to manage the rate of pavement deterioration in concrete streets, highways, and airports. CPR is a non-overlay option used to repair isolated areas of distress in a concrete pavement without changing its grade. This rational, preventive procedure restores the pavement to a condition close to original and reduces the need for major and more costly repairs later. In fact, recent reports from the Transportation Research Board state that for every dollar invested in appropriately timed preventive pavement maintenance, three to four dollars in future rehabilitation costs are saved.